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Version 6.10
General Information
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Edition Differences
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Volts Informative Downloads
Volts Features
Help Movies - How To Do's
All Volts Features
Branch Circuit Load Calcs
Circuit Layout
Cable Tray Fill
Circuit Load Analysis
Conduit Fill
Device and Metal Box Fill
Efficiency Factor
Motor Ampacity and Characteristics
Motor Startup Ampacity
Ohm’s Law
Power Factor
Power Factor Correction
Resistor Color Codes
Series Location Voltage Drop
Transformer Sizing
Unit Conversions
Utility Transformer Values
Wireway Fill
Circuit Breakers
Device and Metal Boxes
Arc Blast Pressure
Arc Flash Labels
Custom Reports
One Line Diagrams
Panel Schedules
Report PDF Samples
Short Circuit Analysis
Surge Protection Analysis
Formulae & Methods
Voltage Drop Formulae
Conductor Sizes
Ohm's Law Formulae
SI Units
Volts Release History
Version 6.10
    Updated Volts to a more Vista look without the Vista problems.
    Added ability to used NEC table 310.16 instead 310.5 thru 310.10
    Added ability to move a selected device within a panel in the worksheet.
    Added 26 Help Movies.
    Added power factor capacitor sizing and utilization within the Volts worksheet with one line support.
    Added Surge Protection reporting per IEEE Std C62.41,42 and IEC 61643-1:1998.
    Added the Surge Protection Device database with 650 pre-characterized, manufacture specific SPDs.
    Added Arc Flash labeling and computing for step transformers, motorized devices and generators in addition to panels.
    Added ability to add a diversity factor percentage to receptacle circuits.
    Added ability to document revisions under Project Information | Project Revisions Database.
    Added ability for Volts to recognize any PDF program as its default for exporting. This feature is found in the Schedule Setup section.
    Added another Edit selection to copy a panel with devices for inserting into the worksheet.
    Added Arc Blast Pressure report which computes the pressure from an arc flash incident.
    Added accumulated project time screen to automatically track the individual and accumulated times spent on a project.
    Added Motor Detail Report for an motor device individually selected from the worksheet.
    Added user default to include or not the Cable Insulation Stability report with the Short Circuit Analysis report.
    Added Rated Amperes and Distance columns to the Voltage Drop Analysis report.
    Added raceway sizing for Earth (buried) devices.
  Version 6.00
    Added Arc Flash label setup for label customization
    Added Spanish language support to the Arc Flash report and labels
    With the short circuit cable stability report, added the ability to select the short at either the panel or the device.
    Added generator support and reporting
    Updated the Series Location Voltage Drop module with more accuracy, better transferring abilities and a more informative report.
    Added a notification when inserting devices into a locked panel OCPD warning that the locked size needs increasing.
  Version 5.20
  Added short circuit reporting per IEEE Std. 141, 242 per unit method. Reporting includes medium and low voltage momentary short circuit reports and cable insulation stability report.
    Added short circuit base values entry boxes in the Utility Transformer characterization screen.
    Modified the Utility Transformer section of the Panel Schedule header to show the panel's source.
    Added a blank circuit breaker image for use when not including a device for computations. ie. a spare or blank section.
    Added multiple short circuit default settings in the Schedule Setup screen
    Added ability to specify different printers with printer specific margin settings for each of Volts' reports
    Added Motor Control Center Summary Report
    Added Circuit References in place of Circuit Numbers for all reports
    Added user selected electrical code reference and year - NEC or NOM 1999, 2002, 2005, or 2008
    Updated Volts to NEC and NOM 2008
  Version 5.12
    Added Circuit Layout options in the User Defaults module found in the Defaults and Databases | User Defaults menu selection
    Added a Cable Trays Database
    Added One Line Riser Symbols Database for selecting one line diagram symbols
    Added the Wireway Fill module found in Additional Modules
    Added Wireways Database
    Expanded the Motor Ampacity module
    Added Phase Balance Differential Percentage to the Circuit Layout module
    Added RV Receptacle device category
    Added RV Park service sizing option
    Increased Volts' accuracy and speed of computation
  Version 5.11
    Added a new and very fast database structure
    Added an alternate panel schedule report conforming to the Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama standards.
    Added a new installation program that is Vista compatible.
    Added Project Notes for permanent design and reference note storage
    Added both Balanced and per Phase methods for computing a panel load
    Added HVAC default OCPD upsizing factor
    Added default for number of poles for a less than 230 volt device for USA or European standards
  Version 5.10
    Added CAD DXF Exporting feature to most of Volts' reports.
    Added Protection Device Overview report.
    Added Conduits and Cables Simplified report.
    Added additional device categories
    Enhanced all of Volts' reports.
    Enhanced most of Volts' modules.
    Added over 100 user requested additions, modifications and options to Volts.
  Version 4.01
    Added user defined columns for the panel schedule report.
    Added the ability to split the units on the panel schedule for the dispersed load and the total load values.
    Added the Include in Computations feature for including or not including a device's values in its respective panel's ampacity value and OCPD size.
    Added the ability to specify any conductor increase factor in addition to the preset 100% and 125% selections.
    Added the Labels database.
    Added Cable Identification Label report.
    Added Raceway Identification Label report.
    Added Panel Directory Label report in addition to the Panel Directory Card report.
    Added NEMA Motor Starter Sizing support to specified devices, the material list and the one line riser diagram.
    Added the Motor Detail report
  Version 4.00
    This was our most aggressive and largest release thus far. We have listed only a few of the releases highlights.
    Volts supports both primary, OCPD, and secondary protection with automatic secondary circuit breaker or fuse sizing. Please find this feature in either the the Circuit Layout form (right clicking a breaker of fuse image) or from the Change button found next to the OCPD size in the Minimum Conductor Size section of the Circuit Load Analysis form.
    Added a number of sample project files found in the Help menu selection.
    3 new databases were added.
    Volts now opens with two active forms, the usual Circuit Load Analysis form and the new Circuit Layout form. This new form is designed to layout the panel board, establish the system's phase, change to a MCC instead of a panel board, compute the phase load balance and the unbalanced neutral load in a 3-phase, 4-wire system.
    All reports are more inclusive and accurate.
    Any item can be shown in the one line by checking the Include in One Line checkbox located just under the Device Description enter box.
    All reports can also be exported in a PDF format.
    All reports are now accessible from the Reports menu selection.
    Added fuse support in addition to a more complete selection of circuit breakers.
    Added Motor Control Center (MCC) support to the main worksheet grid and one line diagrams.
    Add transformer sizing abilities and reports to the main circuit load analysis worksheet grid.
    Added additional panel hierarchy support to include switchboards, main panels, 3 levels of feeder panels and sub panels.
    Added PDF exporting option for all reports and drawings.
    Added OCPD vs Conductor Size report.
    Added Voltage Drop Analysis w/Graphing report.
    And a lot more....
  Version 3.37
    Re-wrote and enhanced the Cables Database enabling support for any type of cable.
    Pre-characterized over 1,450 cables for the new Cables Database
    Added Circuit Notes for circuit specific notations
    Added Cables Compound Reference Database
    Added printing and exporting capabilities to the Conduit Fill module.
    Added Conduit, Fill and Conductors Detail Report.
    Enhanced the Conductors and Insulations Database.
    Finished centralizing all of Volts' computations, databases, and dll's (dynamic link libraries).
    Added Table 310.15(B)(6) for conductor sizing based on a dwelling service size.
    Added support for type FO (fiber optic) cables in regards to raceway sizing.
    Added a Reset button to Volts' session timer for timing multiple projects during the same Volts session.
    Added "% Fill" and "Max % Fill" selections to the Circuit Load Analysis's additional columns and the 5 customizable reports printouts.
  Version 3.36
    Established Volts on a centralized database for future modules.
    Added File Information feature for basic file information and full path of the currently opened file.
    Added Backups sub directory to Volts' program directory for Auto Save backup file storage.
    Added Import Devices Only feature for importing blocks of pre-characterized devices.
    Added Import Panels with Devices module for importing and building a MDP from separate panel files.
    Added "Lock Size" check box for locking the circuit breaker's minimum size for panels.
    Added "Lock Size" check box for locking the conductor's minimum size with both devices and panel conductors.
    Added ground sizing using either NEC Table 250.122 or 250.66 for sizing ground conductors when adding panels (Total Lines)
    Added ability to use Windows' standard "click" into a textbox before entering a value or Volts' quick "pass over" a textbox value entry
    Added special breaker and conductor sizing features for VFD motors found in the User Defaults section
    Enabled Volts to maintain all user default, report writer and schedule setup user defined values when upgrading Volts.
    Added Set Minimum Breaker size feature found in the User Defaults | Circuit Breakers and Panels section
    Added Find Item feature to Circuit Load Analysis module for locating specific items in large worksheets
    Added export to file saving and opening features to Series Voltage Drop module
    Added export to Microsoft Excel® and CSV features to Series Voltage Drop module
    Added export to Microsoft Excel® feature to Load Summary Report
    Re-wrote the Summaries Report and added exported to Microsoft Excel® feature
    Re-wrote the Conduit and Cable Schedule report and added exported to Microsoft Excel® feature
    Added Power Factor and Phase Angle Offset Module
    Replaced kcmils with Mexico's NOM 1999 conductor size unit of measurements
    Added C-C check box next to Neutral Conductor Quantity for specifying a neutral conductor as current-carrying
    Added minimum conduit size feature in the User Defaults | Raceways screen to specify minimum conduit sizes
    Fixed various program bugs
  Version 3.35
    Centralized Volts' database and many reports
    Add Load Summary Report to the Circuit Load Analysis module's list of reports
    Added Service Sizing from 10 NEC® 220 application specific specifications in addition to Summation of Load Values
    Added device / circuit load values derived from NEC® 220 application specific specifications
    Enhanced the Device Category selections to 21 specific categories to enable correct NEC® 220 application specific computations
    Added file saving and exporting functionality to the Transformer Sizing Module
    Added ability to transfer device from the Circuit Load Analysis module to the Transformer Sizing Module
    Added feature to delete blank lines from the Circuit Load Analysis module
    Added Neutral Conductor gauge selection for Volts' Report Writers
    Enabled Volts' worksheet to be directly exported to Microsoft Excel®
    Added Increase Neutral Conductor with Current-Carrying Conductor checkbox in the User Defaults | Conductors | Neutral Conductors section
    Added Transformer Sizes database
    Added Efficiency and Power Factor jump buttons under the Efficiency and Power Factor entry boxes
    Added (A) From Tables button under the Motor-HVAC device category for quick launching the Motor Amperes Module and posting motor amperages from NEC® Tables 430.146 - 430.150.
  Version 3.34
    Updated Volts to NEC® 2005 specifications
    Added the Raceways Database enabling user defined raceway type names
    Added Temperature Section in the User Defaults screen with Terminal Temperature default setting for all device categories.
    Gave Volts more of an "XP" look and feel
    Increased Volts' native screen resolution from 800 x 600 to 1024 x 768 and better organized Volts' many screens
    Added Update Neutral Conductor menu selection
    Add an interactive NEC® Table 314.16(A) and (B)
    Re-wrote the Device and Metal Boxes Fill Module with 100% graphical interface
    Re-wrote the Device and Metal Boxes Database Module to include all types of boxes, covers and extension rings.
    Enabled the ability to Undo a worksheet when Clear Grid was accidentally pressed
    Added user selection in the Schedule Setup | Panel Schedules to either print or not the panel information header and load totals in the Panel Schedule report.
    Fixed Panel Schedule and Summary bugs
  Version 3.33
    added Pull Box and Conduit Body Sizing Module
    added Pull Box Database Module
    added Conduit Body Database Module
    added Check for Update File Menu selection
    added parallel neutral conductor capabilities
    added ability to change conductor sizing for NEC® 110 terminal temperature considerations
    updated Quick Start Tutorial
    fixed various program bugs
  Version 3.32
    added Load Summary to the Panel Schedule's list of Reports
    added ability to change 2 pole breakers to 1 pole with the Change breaker button
    changed default ambient temperature from 86ºF to 105ºF
    added separate circuit breaker sizing factor for Light and Receptacle device categories
    enacted NEC® 210.19 & 20 specifications to circuit breaker sizing 
    added circuit breaker sizes to Panel Directory printout
    added ability to open file from Explorer by double clicking or the Open command
  Version 3.31
    added Series Voltage Drop Module with conductor auto sizing feature
    set voltage drop computations to IEEE Std 141 exact formula specifications
    added line to neutral voltage drop information
    added Current and Power Conversion Module
    added centralized computing engines and tables for uniform results
    enhanced mm² conductor conversions
    re-wrote the Motor Startup Module to include motor startup values based on motor design and usage
    re-wrote the Transformer Sizing Module enabling an infinitely more powerful tool for transformer sizing
    added Utility Transformer Characterization module with transformer values chart
    added Grounding and Bonding Requirements drawing
    Interfaced Grounding and Bonding drawing with Panel Schedule module
  Version 3.30
    added One Line Riser Diagram module with printing and saving functionality
    re-programmed Panel Schedule module with a graphical user interface
    added Panel Schedule report
    added Feeder Schedule report
    added Panel Drawing report
    added Panel Directory report
    increased the user defined options for Panel Schedules
    prepared the Panel Schedule and One Line Riser Diagram drawings for ACAD, dxf generation.
    added Ground and Bonding Requirements form
    added Volts Notes word processor for storing and generating job specific notes and photographs
    added Junction Box Database
    increased intuitive user interface
  Version 3.20
    added parallel conductor support
    added Continuous, Non-Continuous load selection
    added panel schedule details printout
    added Items Database
    added Tip of the Day screen for those who do not like to read help files
    added neutral conductor support
    added maximum conductor, ground and neutral conductor ampacity and # of parallel conductors column headers and Reports Setup selections
    added user defined circuit breaker layout options
    added circuit breaker selection in Reports Setup
    added more intuitive editing menus and buttons
    added delete item button
    enabled updating and editing of conduits and cable trays from the Circuit Load Module
    added ground conductor support for cables in free air and buried
    added user defined date format
    enabled Windows Region Options defined numeric display format support
    fixed program bugs
  Version 3.12
    added computer specific registration process
    added student version capability
    added user defined circuit breaker database
    added user defined junction box database
    enhanced the panel schedule report
    added recent opened file history for quick opening of recently saved and opened files
    added prior version format update
    fixed all known program bugs
  Version 3.11
    added minimum gauge user default
    added Device Category user default
    fixed program bugs
  Version 3.10
    added NEC® ampacity tables 310.1 - 310.10
    added mm² and kcmils displayed conductor gauge options along with AWG
    various minor program enhances, additions, and user defaults
  Version 3.05
    added panel & conduits and cables schedules and summaries report
    added intrinsic wire selection
    enhanced printing capabilities
    fixed minor bugs
  Version 3.00
    added voltage drop carry-over
    added multi-circuit analysis capability
    added additional NEC® ampacity tables
    added help tutorial
    added conduit and cable tray sizing in the circuit load analysis module
    enhanced  circuit load analysis module item editing abilities
    added Neher-McGrath calculations for cables over 2000 volts
    added signal wire selection
    added 27 configurable information column headers
  Version 2.20
    added printable cable tray fill module
    added reports setup with up to five 100% user defined printed reports accessible from the main menu
    added conductors and insulations database
    enhanced cables database
    added covered & uncovered ampacity derating on main circuit load module
  Version 2.10
    added cables database
    added CSV export feature
    added 59 user defined defaults
    added customizable report printer
    add job information section
    fixed minor program bugs
  Version 2.01
    initial release

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Reprinted with permission from NFPA 70 2008, NEC® copyright© 2008, National Fire Protection Association. This is not the complete and official position of the NFPA on the referenced subject which is represented only by the standard in its entirety. The title National Electric Code® and the acronym NEC® are registered trademarks of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).

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